19 USC § 4512
Relationship of the USMCA to United States and State law
through Pub. L. 116-282, except Pub. L. 116-260

(a) Relationship of USMCA to United States law

(1) United States law to prevail in conflict
No provision of the USMCA, nor the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance, which is inconsistent with any law of the United States, shall have effect.

(2) Construction
Nothing in this Act shall be construed—

(A) to amend or modify any law of the United States, or

(B) to limit any authority conferred under any law of the United States,

unless specifically provided for in this Act.

(b) Relationship of USMCA to State law

(1) Legal challenge
No State law, or the application thereof, may be declared invalid as to any person or circumstance on the ground that the provision or application is inconsistent with the USMCA, except in an action brought by the United States for the purpose of declaring such law or application invalid.

(2) Definition of State law
For purposes of this subsection, the term "State law" includes—

(A) any law of a political subdivision of a State; and

(B) any State law regulating or taxing the business of insurance.

(c) Effect of USMCA with respect to private remedies
No person other than the United States—

(1) shall have any cause of action or defense under the USMCA or by virtue of congressional approval thereof; or

(2) may challenge, in any action brought under any provision of law, any action or inaction by any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of a State, on the ground that such action or inaction is inconsistent with the USMCA.

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 116–113, Jan. 29, 2020, 134 Stat. 11, known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement Implementation Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4501 of this title and Tables.

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