The insurance program for which entitlement is established by sections 426 and 426–1 of this title provides basic protection against the costs of hospital, related post-hospital, home health services, and hospice care in accordance with this part for (1) individuals who are age 65 or over and are eligible for retirement benefits under subchapter II of this chapter (or would be eligible for such benefits if certain government employment were covered employment under such subchapter) or under the railroad retirement system, (2) individuals under age 65 who have been entitled for not less than 24 months to benefits under subchapter II of this chapter (or would have been so entitled to such benefits if certain government employment were covered employment under such subchapter) or under the railroad retirement system on the basis of a disability, and (3) certain individuals who do not meet the conditions specified in either clause (1) or (2) but who are medically determined to have end stage renal disease.
1989—Pub. L. 101–234 repealed Pub. L. 100–360, §104(d)(1), and provided that the provisions of law amended or repealed by such section are restored or revived as if such section had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.
1988—Pub. L. 100–360 substituted "inpatient hospital services, extended care services" for "hospital, related post-hospital".
1986—Pub. L. 99–272 substituted "government employment" for "Federal employment" in cls. (1) and (2).
1982—Pub. L. 97–248, §122(a)(1), substituted "home health services, and hospice care" for "and home health services".
Pub. L. 97–248, §278(b)(3), inserted "(or would be eligible for such benefits if certain Federal employment were covered employment under such subchapter)" after "subchapter II of this chapter" in cl. (1), and inserted "(or would have been so entitled to such benefits if certain Federal employment were covered employment under such subchapter)" after "subchapter II of this chapter" in cl. (2).
1980—Pub. L. 96–499 substituted ", related post-hospital, and home health services" for "and related post-hospital services".
Pub. L. 96–473 substituted "are eligible for" for "are entitled to".
Pub. L. 96–265 substituted "not less than 24 months" for "not less than 24 consecutive months".
1978—Pub. L. 95–292 inserted references to section 426–1 of this title and to individuals who do not meet the conditions specified in either clause (1) or (2) but who are medically determined to have end stage renal disease.
1972—Pub. L. 92–603 designated existing provisions as cl. (1) and added cl. (2).
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment
Pub. L. 101–234, title I, §101(d), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1980, provided that: "The provisions of this section [amending this section and sections 1395d, 1395e, 1395f, 1395k, 1395x, 1395cc, and 1395tt of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1395e and 1395ww of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1395e and 1395ww of this title] shall take effect January 1, 1990, except that the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending provisions set out as a note under section 1395ww of this title] shall be effective as if included in the enactment of MCCA [Pub. L. 100–360]."
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–360 effective Jan. 1, 1989, except as otherwise provided, and applicable to inpatient hospital deductible for 1989 and succeeding years, to care and services furnished on or after Jan. 1, 1989, to premiums for January 1989 and succeeding months, and to blood or blood cells furnished on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 104(a) of Pub. L. 100–360, set out as a note under section 1395d of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective after Mar. 31, 1986, with no individual to be considered under disability for any period beginning before Apr. 1, 1986, for purposes of hospital insurance benefits, see section 13205(d)(2) of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 410 of this title.
Effective Date of 1982 Amendment
Pub. L. 97–248, title I, §122(h)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 362, as amended by Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, §9123(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 168, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395d to 1395f, 1395h, and 1395x to 1395cc of this title and section 231f of Title 45, Railroads, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1395b–1 and 1395f of this title] apply to hospice care provided on or after November 1, 1983."
Amendment by section 278(b)(3) of Pub. L. 97–248 effective on and after Jan. 1, 1983, and applicable to remuneration (for medicare qualified Federal employment) paid after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 278(c)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 426 of this title.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–265 applicable with respect to hospital insurance or supplementary medical insurance benefits for services provided on or after first day of sixth month which begins after June 9, 1980, see section 103(c) of Pub. L. 96–265, set out as a note under section 426 of this title.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–292 effective with respect to services, supplies, and equipment furnished after the third calendar month beginning after June 13, 1978, except that provisions for the implementation of an incentive reimbursement system for dialysis services furnished in facilities and providers to become effective with respect to a facility's or provider's first accounting period beginning after the last day of the twelfth month following the month of June 1978, and except that provisions for reimbursement rates for home dialysis to become effective on Apr. 1, 1979, see section 6 of Pub. L. 95–292, set out as a note under section 426 of this title.
Developing Guidance on Pain Management and Opioid Use Disorder Prevention for Hospitals Receiving Payment Under Part A of the Medicare Program
Pub. L. 115–271, title VI, §6092, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3999, provided that:
"(1) medical professional organizations;
"(3) health care consumers or groups representing such consumers; and
"(4) other entities determined appropriate by the Secretary.
"(1) Best practices regarding evidence-based screening and practitioner education initiatives relating to screening and treatment protocols for opioid use disorder, including—
"(A) methods to identify such individuals at-risk of opioid use disorder, including risk stratification;
"(B) ways to prevent, recognize, and treat opioid overdoses; and
"(C) resources available to such individuals, such as opioid treatment programs, peer support groups, and other recovery programs.
"(2) Best practices for such hospitals to educate practitioners furnishing items and services at such hospital with respect to pain management and substance use disorders, including education on—
"(A) the adverse effects of prolonged opioid use;
"(B) non-opioid, evidence-based, non-pharmacological pain management treatments;
"(C) monitoring programs for individuals who have been prescribed opioids; and
"(D) the prescribing of naloxone along with an initial opioid prescription.
"(3) Best practices for such hospitals to make such individuals aware of the risks associated with opioid use (which may include use of the notification template described in paragraph (4)).
"(4) A notification template developed by the Secretary, for use as appropriate, for such individuals who are prescribed an opioid that—
"(A) explains the risks and side effects associated with opioid use (including the risks of addiction and overdose) and the importance of adhering to the prescribed treatment regimen, avoiding medications that may have an adverse interaction with such opioid, and storing such opioid safely and securely;
"(B) highlights multimodal and evidence-based non-opioid alternatives for pain management;
"(C) encourages such individuals to talk to their health care providers about such alternatives;
"(D) provides for a method (through signature or otherwise) for such an individual, or person acting on such individual's behalf, to acknowledge receipt of such notification template;
"(E) is worded in an easily understandable manner and made available in multiple languages determined appropriate by the Secretary; and
"(F) includes any other information determined appropriate by the Secretary.
"(5) Best practices for such hospital to track opioid prescribing trends by practitioners furnishing items and services at such hospital, including—
"(A) ways for such hospital to establish target levels, taking into account the specialties of such practitioners and the geographic area in which such hospital is located, with respect to opioids prescribed by such practitioners;
"(B) guidance on checking the medical records of such individuals against information included in prescription drug monitoring programs;
"(C) strategies to reduce long-term opioid prescriptions; and
"(D) methods to identify such practitioners who may be over-prescribing opioids.
"(6) Other information the Secretary determines appropriate, including any such information from the Opioid Safety Initiative established by the Department of Veterans Affairs or the Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit published by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration."
Advisory Council To Study Coverage of Disabled Under This Subchapter
Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §140, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 854, directed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to appoint an Advisory Council to study need for coverage of disabled under the health insurance programs of this subchapter, directed Council to submit a report on such study to Secretary by Jan. 1, 1969, and directed Secretary in turn to transmit such report to Congress, resulting in termination of Council's existence.
Reimbursement of Charges Under Part A for Services to Patients Admitted Prior to 1968 to Certain Hospitals
Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §142, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 855, provided that:
"(a) Notwithstanding any provision of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.], an individual who is entitled to hospital insurance benefits under section 226 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 426] may, subject to subsections (b) and (c), receive, on the basis of an itemized bill, reimbursement for charges to him for inpatient hospital services (as defined in section 1861 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x], but without regard to subsection (e) of such section) furnished by, or under arrangements (as defined in section 1861(w) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(w)]) with, a hospital if—
"(1) the hospital did not have an agreement in effect under section 1866 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395cc] but would have been eligible for payment under part A of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.] with respect to such services if at the time such services were furnished the hospital had such an agreement in effect;
"(2) the hospital (A) meets the requirements of paragraphs (5) and (7) of section 1861(e) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(e)(5), (7)], (B) is not primarily engaged in providing the services described in section 1961(j)(1)(A) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(j)(1)(A)], and (C) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of individuals referred to in paragraph (1) of section 1861(r) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(r)(1)], to inpatients (i) diagnostic services and therapeutic services for medical diagnosis, treatment, and care of injured, disabled, or sick persons, or (ii) rehabilitation services for the rehabilitation of injured, disabled, or sick persons;
"(3) the hospital did not meet the requirements that must be met to permit payment to the hospital under part A of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.]; and
"(4) an application is filed (submitted in such form and manner and by such person, and containing and supported by such information, as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe) for reimbursement before January 1, 1969.
"(b) Payments under this section may not be made for inpatient hospital services (as described in subsection (a)) furnished to an individual—
"(1) prior to July 1, 1966,
"(2) after December 31, 1967, unless furnished with respect to an admission to the hospital prior to January 1, 1968, and
"(3) for more than—
"(A) 90 days in any spell of illness, but only if (i) prior to January 1, 1969, the hospital furnishing such services entered into an agreement under section 1866 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395cc] and (ii) the hospital's plan for utilization review, as provided for in section 1861(k) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(k)], has, in accordance with section 1814 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395f], been applied to the services furnished such individual, or
"(B) 20 days in any spell of illness, if the hospital did not meet the conditions of clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).
"(c)(1) The amounts payable in accordance with subsection (a) with respect to inpatient hospital services shall, subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection, be paid from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund in amounts equal to 60 percent of the hospital's reasonable charges for routine services furnished in the accommodations occupied by the individual or in semi-private accommodations (as defined in section 1861(v)(4) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(v)(4)]) whichever is less, plus 80 percent of the hospital's reasonable charges for ancillary services. If separate charges for routine and ancillary services are not made by the hospital, reimbursement may be based on two-thirds of the hospital's reasonable charges for the services received but not to exceed the charges which would have been made if the patient had occupied semi-private accommodations (as so defined). For purposes of the preceding provisions of this paragraph, the term 'routine services' shall mean the regular room, dietary, and nursing services, minor medical and surgical supplies and the use of equipment and facilities for which a separate charge is not customarily made; the term 'ancillary services' shall mean those special services for which charges are customarily made in addition to routine services.
"(2) Before applying paragraph (1), payments made under this section shall be reduced to the extent provided for under section 1813 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395e] in the case of benefits payable to providers of services under part A of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.].
"(d) For the purposes of this section—
"(1) the 90-day period, referred to in subsection (b)(3)(A), shall be reduced by the number of days of inpatient hospital services furnished to such individual during the spell of illness, referred to therein, and with respect to which he was entitled to have payment made under part A of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.];
"(2) the 20-day period, referred to in subsection (b)(3)(B) shall be reduced by the number of days in excess of 70 days of inpatient hospital services furnished during the spell of illness, referred to therein, and with respect to which such individual was entitled to have payment made under such part A [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.];
"(3) the term 'spell of illness' shall have the meaning assigned to it by subsection (a) of section 1861 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(a)] except that the term 'inpatient hospital services' as it appears in such subsection shall have the meaning assigned to it by subsection (a) of this section."