(a) In general
The Director of the Institute shall expand and intensify research and related activities of the Institute with respect to lupus.
(b) Coordination with other institutes
The Director of the Institute shall coordinate the activities of the Director under subsection (a) with similar activities conducted by the other national research institutes and agencies of the National Institutes of Health to the extent that such Institutes and agencies have responsibilities that are related to lupus.
(c) Programs for lupus
In carrying out subsection (a), the Director of the Institute shall conduct or support research to expand the understanding of the causes of, and to find a cure for, lupus. Activities under such subsection shall include conducting and supporting the following:
(1) Research to determine the reasons underlying the elevated prevalence of lupus in women, including African-American women.
(2) Basic research concerning the etiology and causes of the disease.
(3) Epidemiological studies to address the frequency and natural history of the disease and the differences among the sexes and among racial and ethnic groups with respect to the disease.
(4) The development of improved diagnostic techniques.
(5) Clinical research for the development and evaluation of new treatments, including new biological agents.
(6) Information and education programs for health care professionals and the public.
2007—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–482 struck out heading and text of subsec. (d). Text read as follows: "For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2003."
Effective Date of 2007 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482 applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section 281 of this title.
Pub. L. 106–505, title V, §502, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2342, provided that: "The Congress finds that—
"(1) lupus is a serious, complex, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of particular concern to women;
"(2) lupus affects women nine times more often than men;
"(3) there are three main types of lupus: systemic lupus, a serious form of the disease that affects many parts of the body; discoid lupus, a form of the disease that affects mainly the skin; and drug-induced lupus caused by certain medications;
"(4) lupus can be fatal if not detected and treated early;
"(5) the disease can simultaneously affect various areas of the body, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, and brain, and can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms of lupus are similar to those of many other diseases;
"(6) lupus disproportionately affects African-American women, as the prevalence of the disease among such women is three times the prevalence among white women, and an estimated 1 in 250 African-American women between the ages of 15 and 65 develops the disease;
"(7) it has been estimated that between 1,400,000 and 2,000,000 Americans have been diagnosed with the disease, and that many more have undiagnosed cases;
"(8) current treatments for the disease can be effective, but may lead to damaging side effects;
"(9) many victims of the disease suffer debilitating pain and fatigue, making it difficult to maintain employment and lead normal lives; and
"(10) in fiscal year 1996, the amount allocated by the National Institutes of Health for research on lupus was $33,000,000, which is less than one-half of 1 percent of the budget for such Institutes."