43 USC § 31k
National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System
June 5, 2020

(a) Definitions
In this section:

(1) Secretary
The term "Secretary" means the Secretary, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey.

(2) System
The term "System" means the National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System established under subsection (b)(1)(A).

(b) National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System

(1) Establishment

(A) In general
The Secretary shall establish within the United States Geological Survey a system, to be known as the "National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System", to monitor, warn, and protect citizens of the United States from undue and avoidable harm from volcanic activity.

(B) Purposes
The purposes of the System are—

(i) to organize, modernize, standardize, and stabilize the monitoring systems of the volcano observatories in the United States, which includes the Alaska Volcano Observatory, California Volcano Observatory, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory; and

(ii) to unify the monitoring systems of volcano observatories in the United States into a single interoperative system.

(C) Objective
The objective of the System is to monitor all the volcanoes in the United States at a level commensurate with the threat posed by the volcanoes by—

(i) upgrading existing networks on monitored volcanoes;

(ii) installing new networks on unmonitored volcanoes; and

(iii) employing geodetic and other components when applicable.

(2) System components

(A) In general
The System shall include—

(i) a national volcano watch office that is operational 24 hours a day and 7 days a week;

(ii) a national volcano data center; and

(iii) an external grants program to support research in volcano monitoring science and technology.

(B) Modernization activities
Modernization activities under the System shall include the comprehensive application of emerging technologies, including digital broadband seismometers, real-time continuous Global Positioning System receivers, satellite and airborne radar interferometry, acoustic pressure sensors, and spectrometry to measure gas emissions.

(3) Management

(A) Management plan

(i) In general
Not later than 180 days after March 12, 2019, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a 5-year management plan for establishing and operating the System.

(ii) Inclusions
The management plan submitted under clause (i) shall include—

(I) annual cost estimates for modernization activities and operation of the System;

(II) annual milestones, standards, and performance goals; and

(III) recommendations for, and progress towards, establishing new, or enhancing existing, partnerships to leverage resources.

(B) Advisory committee
The Secretary shall establish an advisory committee to assist the Secretary in implementing the System, to be comprised of representatives of relevant agencies and members of the scientific community, to be appointed by the Secretary.

(C) Partnerships
The Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements with institutions of higher education and State agencies designating the institutions of higher education and State agencies as volcano observatory partners for the System.

(D) Coordination
The Secretary shall coordinate the activities under this section with the heads of relevant Federal agencies, including—

(i) the Secretary of Transportation;

(ii) the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration;

(iii) the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and

(iv) the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(4) Annual report
Annually, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that describes the activities carried out under this section.

(c) Funding

(1) Authorization of appropriations
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $55,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(2) Effect on other sources of Federal funding
Amounts made available under this subsection shall supplement, and not supplant, Federal funds made available for other United States Geological Survey hazards activities and programs.

Definition of "Secretary"

Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior, see section 2 of Pub. L. 116–9, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

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