5 USC § 305
Systematic agency review of operations
through Pub. L. 116-216 (December 11, 2020)

(a) For the purpose of this section, "agency" means an Executive agency, but does not include—

(1) a Government controlled corporation;

(2) the Tennessee Valley Authority;

(3) the Virgin Islands Corporation;

(4) the Atomic Energy Commission;

(5) the Central Intelligence Agency;

(6) the Panama Canal Commission; or

(7) the National Security Agency, Department of Defense.

(b) Under regulations prescribed and administered by the President, each agency shall review systematically the operations of each of its activities, functions, or organization units, on a continuing basis.

(c) The purpose of the reviews includes—

(1) determining the degree of efficiency and economy in the operation of the agency's activities, functions, or organization units;

(2) identifying the units that are outstanding in those respects; and

(3) identifying the employees whose personal efforts have caused their units to be outstanding in efficiency and economy of operations.

Open Table
Historical and Revision Notes
Derivation U.S. Code Revised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a) 5 U.S.C. 1085. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §205, 63 Stat. 957.
(b), (c) 5 U.S.C. 1151. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §1001, 63 Stat. 971.

Subsection (a) is based in part on former sections 1081 and 1082, which are carried into section 5102.

In subsection (a)(1), the exception of "a Government controlled corporation" is added to preserve the application of this section to "corporations wholly owned by the United States". This is necessary as the defined term "Executive agency" includes the defined term "Government corporation" and the latter includes both Government owned and controlled corporations. Thus the exclusion of Government controlled corporations, which are distinct from wholly owned corporations, operates to preserve the application of this section to wholly owned corporations. The exception for the Inland Waterways Corporation in former section 1082(13) is omitted on authority of the Act of July 19, 1963, Pub. L. 88–67, 77 Stat. 81. The exceptions for Production Credit Corporations and Federal Intermediate Credit Banks in former section 1082(18) and (19) are omitted as they are no longer "corporations wholly owned by the United States". Under the Farm Credit Act of 1956, 70 Stat. 659, the Production Credit Corporations were merged in the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, and pursuant to that Act the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks have ceased to be corporations wholly owned by the United States.

In subsection (a)(7), the words "Panama Canal Company" are substituted for "Panama Railroad Company" on authority of the Act of Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(a)(2), 64 Stat. 1038.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.


1983—Subsec. (a)(3) to (8). Pub. L. 97–468 struck out par. (3), which excluded The Alaska Railroad, and redesignated pars. (4) to (8) as (3) to (7), respectively.

1979—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 96–70 substituted "Commission" for "Company".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–54 substituted "President" for "Director of the Bureau of the Budget".

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–468 effective on date of transfer of Alaska Railroad to the State [Jan. 5, 1985], pursuant to section 1203 of Title 45, Railroads, see section 615(b) of Pub. L. 97–468.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Pub. L. 96–54, §2(b), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 385, provided that: "Except as otherwise expressly provided in subsection (a), the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending sections 305, 1308, 2101, 2105, 2106, 2108, 3102, 3132, 3302, 3305, 3315, 3317, 3324, 3326, 3503, 4102, 4109, 4111, 4112, 4701, 5102, 5108, 5311 to 5316, 5333 to 5335, 5347, 5504, 5514, 5516, 5521, 5545, 5550a, 5562, 5581, 5584, 5596, 5702, 5903, 5943, 6104, 6304, 6305, 6323, 6325, 7325, 7327, 7701, 7702, 8331, 8332, 8339, 8347, 8701, 8901, and 8906 of this title], shall take effect July 12, 1979, or the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 1979], whichever is earlier."

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Director of Office of Management and Budget, see Ex. Ord. No. 12152, Aug. 14, 1979, 44 F.R. 48143, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Dissolution of Virgin Islands Corporation

Virgin Islands Corporation established to have succession until June 30, 1969, unless sooner dissolved by Act of Congress, by act June 30, 1949, ch. 285, 63 Stat. 350, as amended (48 U.S.C. 1407 et seq.). Corporation terminated its program June 30, 1965, and dissolved July 1, 1966. Act June 30, 1949, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–357, title III, §308(e), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1710.

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