For the purpose of this subchapter—
(1) "agency" means each authority of the Government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency, but does not include—
(A) the Congress;
(B) the courts of the United States;
(C) the governments of the territories or possessions of the United States;
(D) the government of the District of Columbia;
or except as to the requirements of section 552 of this title—
(E) agencies composed of representatives of the parties or of representatives of organizations of the parties to the disputes determined by them;
(F) courts martial and military commissions;
(G) military authority exercised in the field in time of war or in occupied territory; or
(H) functions conferred by sections 1738, 1739, 1743, and 1744 of title 12; subchapter II of chapter 471 of title 49; or sections 1884, 1891–1902, and former section 1641(b)(2), of title 50, appendix;
(2) "person" includes an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or public or private organization other than an agency;
(3) "party" includes a person or agency named or admitted as a party, or properly seeking and entitled as of right to be admitted as a party, in an agency proceeding, and a person or agency admitted by an agency as a party for limited purposes;
(4) "rule" means the whole or a part of an agency statement of general or particular applicability and future effect designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy or describing the organization, procedure, or practice requirements of an agency and includes the approval or prescription for the future of rates, wages, corporate or financial structures or reorganizations thereof, prices, facilities, appliances, services or allowances therefor or of valuations, costs, or accounting, or practices bearing on any of the foregoing;
(5) "rule making" means agency process for formulating, amending, or repealing a rule;
(6) "order" means the whole or a part of a final disposition, whether affirmative, negative, injunctive, or declaratory in form, of an agency in a matter other than rule making but including licensing;
(7) "adjudication" means agency process for the formulation of an order;
(8) "license" includes the whole or a part of an agency permit, certificate, approval, registration, charter, membership, statutory exemption or other form of permission;
(9) "licensing" includes agency process respecting the grant, renewal, denial, revocation, suspension, annulment, withdrawal, limitation, amendment, modification, or conditioning of a license;
(10) "sanction" includes the whole or a part of an agency—
(A) prohibition, requirement, limitation, or other condition affecting the freedom of a person;
(B) withholding of relief;
(C) imposition of penalty or fine;
(D) destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property;
(E) assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges, or fees;
(F) requirement, revocation, or suspension of a license; or
(G) taking other compulsory or restrictive action;
(11) "relief" includes the whole or a part of an agency—
(A) grant of money, assistance, license, authority, exemption, exception, privilege, or remedy;
(B) recognition of a claim, right, immunity, privilege, exemption, or exception; or
(C) taking of other action on the application or petition of, and beneficial to, a person;
(12) "agency proceeding" means an agency process as defined by paragraphs (5), (7), and (9) of this section;
(13) "agency action" includes the whole or a part of an agency rule, order, license, sanction, relief, or the equivalent or denial thereof, or failure to act; and
(14) "ex parte communication" means an oral or written communication not on the public record with respect to which reasonable prior notice to all parties is not given, but it shall not include requests for status reports on any matter or proceeding covered by this subchapter.Open Table
Revised Statutes and
Statutes at Large
|(1)||5 U.S.C. 1001(a).||June 11, 1946, ch. 324, §2(a), 60 Stat. 237.|
|Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 870, §302, 60 Stat. 918.|
|Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, §601, 60 Stat. 993.|
|Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 30, §6(a), 61 Stat. 37.|
|June 30, 1947, ch. 163, §210, 61 Stat. 201.|
|Mar. 30, 1948, ch. 161, §301, 62 Stat. 99.|
|(2)–(13)||5 U.S.C. 1001 (less (a)).||June 11, 1946, ch. 324, §2 (less (a)), 60 Stat. 237.|
In paragraph (1), the sentence "Nothing in this Act shall be construed to repeal delegations of authority as provided by law," is omitted as surplusage since there is nothing in the Act which could reasonably be so construed.
In paragraph (1)(G), the words "or naval" are omitted as included in "military".
In paragraph (1)(H), the words "functions which by law expire on the termination of present hostilities, within any fixed period thereafter, or before July 1, 1947" are omitted as executed. Reference to the "Selective Training and Service Act of 1940" is omitted as that Act expired Mar. 31, 1947. Reference to the "Sugar Control Extension Act of 1947" is omitted as that Act expired on Mar. 31, 1948. References to the "Housing and Rent Act of 1947, as amended" and the "Veterans' Emergency Housing Act of 1946" have been consolidated as they are related. The reference to former section 1641(b)(2) of title 50, appendix, is retained notwithstanding its repeal by §111(a)(1) of the Act of Sept. 21, 1961, Pub. L. 87–256, 75 Stat. 538, since §111(c) of the Act provides that a reference in other Acts to a provision of law repealed by §111(a) shall be considered to be a reference to the appropriate provisions of Pub. L. 87–256.
In paragraph (2), the words "of any character" are omitted as surplusage.
In paragraph (3), the words "and a person or agency admitted by an agency as a party for limited purposes" are substituted for "but nothing herein shall be construed to prevent an agency from admitting any person or agency as a party for limited purposes".
In paragraph (9), a comma is supplied between the words "limitation" and "amendment" to correct an editorial error of omission.
In paragraph (10)(C), the words "of any form" are omitted as surplusage.
Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.
References in Text
Sections 1884 and 1891–1902 of title 50, appendix, referred to in par. (1)(H), were a part of the various Housing and Rent Acts which were classified to section 1881 et seq. of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, and had been repealed or omitted from the Code as executed prior to the elimination of the Appendix to Title 50. See Elimination of Title 50, Appendix note preceding section 1 of Title 50. Section 1641 of title 50, appendix, referred to in par. (1)(H), was repealed by Pub. L. 87–256, §111(a)(1), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 538. See Historical and Revision Note above.
2011—Par. (1)(H). Pub. L. 111–350 struck out "chapter 2 of title 41;" after "title 12;".
1994—Par. (1)(H). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "subchapter II of chapter 471 of title 49; or sections" for "or sections 1622,".
1976—Par. (14). Pub. L. 94–409 added par. (14).
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment
Study and Reports on Administrative Subpoenas
Pub. L. 106–544, §7, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2719, provided that:
"(1) a description of the sources of administrative subpoena power and the scope of such subpoena power within executive branch agencies;
"(2) a description of applicable subpoena enforcement mechanisms;
"(3) a description of any notification provisions and any other provisions relating to safeguarding privacy interests;
"(4) a description of the standards governing the issuance of administrative subpoenas; and
"(5) recommendations from the Attorney General regarding necessary steps to ensure that administrative subpoena power is used and enforced consistently and fairly by executive branch agencies.
Ex. Ord. No. 13892. Promoting the Rule of Law Through Transparency and Fairness in Civil Administrative Enforcement and Adjudication
Ex. Ord. No. 13892, Oct. 9, 2019, 84 F.R. 55239, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Unfortunately, departments and agencies (agencies) in the executive branch have not always complied with these requirements. In addition, some agency practices with respect to enforcement actions and adjudications undermine the APA's goals of promoting accountability and ensuring fairness.
Agencies shall act transparently and fairly with respect to all affected parties, as outlined in this order, when engaged in civil administrative enforcement or adjudication. No person should be subjected to a civil administrative enforcement action or adjudication absent prior public notice of both the enforcing agency's jurisdiction over particular conduct and the legal standards applicable to that conduct. Moreover, the Federal Government should, where feasible, foster greater private-sector cooperation in enforcement, promote information sharing with the private sector, and establish predictable outcomes for private conduct. Agencies shall afford regulated parties the safeguards described in this order, above and beyond those that the courts have interpreted the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution to impose.
(a) "Agency" has the meaning given to "Executive agency" in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, but excludes the Government Accountability Office.
(b) "Collection of information" includes any conduct that would qualify as a "collection of information" as defined in section 3502(3)(A) of title 44, United States Code, or section 1320.3(c) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations, and also includes any request for information, regardless of the number of persons to whom it is addressed, that is:
(i) addressed to all or a substantial majority of an industry; or
(ii) designed to obtain information from a representative sample of individual persons in an industry.
(c) "Guidance document" means an agency statement of general applicability, intended to have future effect on the behavior of regulated parties, that sets forth a policy on a statutory, regulatory, or technical issue, or an interpretation of a statute or regulation, but does not include the following:
(i) rules promulgated pursuant to notice and comment under section 553 of title 5, United States Code, or similar statutory provisions;
(ii) rules exempt from rulemaking requirements under section 553(a) of title 5, United States Code;
(iii) rules of agency organization, procedure, or practice;
(iv) decisions of agency adjudications under section 554 of title 5, United States Code, or similar statutory provisions;
(v) internal guidance directed to the issuing agency or other agencies that is not intended to have substantial future effect on the behavior of regulated parties; or
(vi) internal executive branch legal advice or legal opinions addressed to executive branch officials.
(d) "Legal consequence" means the result of an action that directly or indirectly affects substantive legal rights or obligations. The meaning of this term should be informed by the Supreme Court's discussion in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers v. Hawkes Co., 136 S. Ct. 1807, 1813–16 (2016), and includes, for example, agency orders specifying which commodities are subject to or exempt from regulation under a statute, Frozen Food Express v. United States, 351 U.S. 40, 44–45 (1956), as well as agency letters or orders establishing greater liability for regulated parties in a subsequent enforcement action, Rhea Lana, Inc. v. Dep't of Labor, 824 F.3d 1023, 1030 (DC Cir. 2016). In particular, "legal consequence" includes subjecting a regulated party to potential liability.
(e) "Unfair surprise" means a lack of reasonable certainty or fair warning of what a legal standard administered by an agency requires. The meaning of this term should be informed by the examples of lack of fair notice discussed by the Supreme Court in Christopher v. SmithKline Beecham Corp., 567 U.S. 142, 156 & n.15 (2012).
(f) "Pre-enforcement ruling" means a formal written communication from an agency in response to an inquiry from a person concerning compliance with legal requirements that interprets the law or applies the law to a specific set of facts supplied by the person. The term includes informal guidance under section 213 of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, Public Law 104–121 (Title II) [5 U.S.C. 601 note], as amended (SBREFA), letter rulings, advisory opinions, and no-action letters.
(g) "Regulation" means a legislative rule promulgated pursuant to section 553 of title 5, United States Code, or similar statutory provisions.
(b) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to settlement negotiations between agencies and regulated parties, to notices of a prospective legal action, or to litigation before courts.
(c) An agency may proceed without regard to subsection (a) of this section where necessary because of a serious threat to health, safety, or other emergency or where a statute specifically authorizes proceeding without a prior opportunity to be heard. Where an agency proceeds under this subsection, it nevertheless must afford any person an opportunity to be heard, in person or in writing, regarding the agency's legal determinations and respond in writing as soon as practicable.
(b) To advance the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, any collection of information during the conduct of an investigation (other than those investigations excepted under section 3518 of title 44, United States Code, and section 1320.4 of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations, or civil investigative demands under 18 U.S.C. 1968) must either:
(i) display a valid control number assigned by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget; or
(ii) inform the recipient through prominently displayed plain language that no response is legally required.
(i) to encourage voluntary self-reporting of regulatory violations by regulated parties in exchange for reductions or waivers of civil penalties;
(ii) to encourage voluntary information sharing by regulated parties; and
(iii) to provide pre-enforcement rulings to regulated parties.
(b) Any agency that believes additional procedures are not practicable—because, for example, the agency believes it already has adequate procedures in place or because it believes it lacks the resources to institute additional procedures—shall, within 270 days of the date of this order, submit a report to the President describing, as appropriate, its existing procedures, its need for more resources, or any other basis for its conclusion.
(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This order shall be implemented in a manner consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision in this order, nothing in this order shall apply:
(i) to any action that pertains to foreign or military affairs, or to a national security or homeland security function of the United States (other than procurement actions and actions involving the import or export of non-defense articles and services);
(ii) to any action related to a criminal investigation or prosecution, including undercover operations, or any civil enforcement action or related investigation by the Department of Justice, including any action related to a civil investigative demand under 18 U.S.C. 1968;
(iii) to any action related to detention, seizure, or destruction of counterfeit goods, pirated goods, or other goods that infringe intellectual property rights;
(iv) to any investigation of misconduct by an agency employee or any disciplinary, corrective, or employment action taken against an agency employee; or
(v) in any other circumstance or proceeding to which application of this order, or any part of this order, would, in the judgment of the head of the agency, undermine the national security.
Donald J. Trump.1 See References in Text note below.