15 USC § 80a-47
Liability of controlling persons; preventing compliance with subchapter
through Pub. L. 116-344, except Pub. Ls. 116-260 and 116-283

(a) Procurement
It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to cause to be done any act or thing through or by means of any other person which it would be unlawful for such person to do under the provisions of this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.

(b) Substantially assisting a violation
For purposes of any action brought by the Commission under subsection (d) or (e) of section 80a–41 of this title, any person that knowingly or recklessly provides substantial assistance to another person in violation of a provision of this subchapter, or of any rule or regulation issued under this subchapter, shall be deemed to be in violation of such provision to the same extent as the person to whom such assistance is provided.

(c) Obstructing compliance
It shall be unlawful for any person without just cause to hinder, delay, or obstruct the making, filing, or keeping of any information, document, report, record, or account required to be made, filed, or kept under any provision of this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.


2010—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 111–203 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

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