(a) Responsibility of Secretary
The Secretary, acting through the Bureau, shall be responsible for providing, or for assisting in the provision of, law enforcement services in Indian country as provided in this chapter.
(b) Office of Justice Services
There is established in the Bureau an office, to be known as the "Office of Justice Services", that, under the supervision of the Secretary, or an individual designated by the Secretary, shall be responsible for—
(1) carrying out the law enforcement functions of the Secretary in Indian country, and
(2) implementing the provisions of this section.
(c) Additional responsibilities of Division
Subject to the provisions of this chapter and other applicable Federal or tribal laws, the responsibilities of the Office of Justice Services in Indian country shall include—
(1) the enforcement of Federal law and, with the consent of the Indian tribe, tribal law;
(2) in cooperation with appropriate Federal and tribal law enforcement agencies, the investigation of offenses against criminal laws of the United States;
(3) the protection of life and property;
(4) the development of methods and expertise to resolve conflicts and solve crimes;
(5) the provision of criminal justice remedial actions, correctional and detention services, and rehabilitation;
(6) the reduction of recidivism and adverse social effects;
(7) the development of preventive and outreach programs which will enhance the public conception of law enforcement responsibilities through training and development of needed public service skills;
(8) the assessment and evaluation of program accomplishments in reducing crime;
(9) the development and provision of law enforcement training and technical assistance, including training to properly interview victims of domestic and sexual violence and to collect, preserve, and present evidence to Federal and tribal prosecutors to increase the conviction rate for domestic and sexual violence offenses for purposes of addressing and preventing domestic and sexual violent offenses;
(10) the development and provision of dispatch and emergency and E–911 services;
(11) communicating with tribal leaders, tribal community and victims' advocates, tribal justice officials, indigent defense representatives, and residents of Indian country on a regular basis regarding public safety and justice concerns facing tribal communities;
(12) conducting meaningful and timely consultation with tribal leaders and tribal justice officials in the development of regulatory policies and other actions that affect public safety and justice in Indian country;
(13) providing technical assistance and training to tribal law enforcement officials to gain access and input authority to utilize the National Criminal Information Center and other national crime information databases pursuant to section 534 of title 28;
(14) in coordination with the Attorney General pursuant to subsection (g) of section 10132 of title 34, collecting, analyzing, and reporting data regarding Indian country crimes on an annual basis;
(15) on an annual basis, sharing with the Department of Justice all relevant crime data, including Uniform Crime Reports, that the Office of Justice Services prepares and receives from tribal law enforcement agencies on a tribe-by-tribe basis to ensure that individual tribal governments providing data are eligible for programs offered by the Department of Justice;
(16) submitting to the appropriate committees of Congress, for each fiscal year, a detailed spending report regarding tribal public safety and justice programs that includes—
(i) the number of full-time employees of the Bureau and tribal governments who serve as—
(I) criminal investigators;
(II) uniform police;
(III) police and emergency dispatchers;
(IV) detention officers;
(V) executive personnel, including special agents in charge, and directors and deputies of various offices in the Office of Justice Services; and
(VI) tribal court judges, prosecutors, public defenders, appointed defense counsel, or related staff; and
(ii) the amount of appropriations obligated for each category described in clause (i) for each fiscal year;
(B) a list of amounts dedicated to law enforcement and corrections, vehicles, related transportation costs, equipment, inmate transportation costs, inmate transfer costs, replacement, improvement, and repair of facilities, personnel transfers, detailees and costs related to their details, emergency events, public safety and justice communications and technology costs, and tribal court personnel, facilities, indigent defense, and related program costs;
(C) a list of the unmet staffing needs of law enforcement, corrections, and court personnel (including indigent defense and prosecution staff) at tribal and Bureau of Indian Affairs justice agencies, the replacement and repair needs of tribal and Bureau corrections facilities, needs for tribal police and court facilities, and public safety and emergency communications and technology needs; and
(D) the formula, priority list or other methodology used to determine the method of disbursement of funds for the public safety and justice programs administered by the Office of Justice Services;
(17) submitting to the appropriate committees of Congress, for each fiscal year, a report summarizing the technical assistance, training, and other support provided to tribal law enforcement and corrections agencies that operate relevant programs pursuant to self-determination contracts or self-governance compacts with the Secretary; and
(18) promulgating regulations to carry out this chapter, and routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the regulations contained in subchapter B of title 25,Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations).
(d) Branch of Criminal Investigations; establishment, responsibilities, regulations, personnel, etc.
(1) The Secretary shall establish within the Office of Justice Services a separate Branch of Criminal Investigations which, under such inter-agency agreement as may be reached between the Secretary and appropriate agencies or officials of the Department of Justice and subject to such guidelines as may be adopted by relevant United States attorneys, shall be responsible for the investigation, and presentation for prosecution, of cases involving violations of sections 1152 and 1153 of title 18 within Indian country.
(2) The Branch of Criminal Investigations shall not be primarily responsible for the routine law enforcement and police operations of the Bureau in Indian country.
(3) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which shall establish a procedure for active cooperation and consultation of the criminal investigative employees of the Bureau assigned to an Indian reservation with the governmental and law enforcement officials of the Indian tribe located on such reservation.
(i) Criminal investigative personnel of the Branch shall be subject only to the supervision and direction of law enforcement personnel of the Branch or of the Office of Justice Services. Such personnel shall not be subject to the supervision of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Agency Superintendent or Bureau of Indian Affairs Area Office Director. Nothing in this paragraph is intended to prohibit cooperation, coordination, or consultation, as appropriate, with nonlaw enforcement Bureau of Indian Affairs personnel at the agency or area levels, or prohibit or restrict the right of a tribe to contract the investigative program under the authority of Public Law 93–638 [25 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.] or to maintain its own criminal investigative operations.
(ii) At the end of one year following the date of establishment of the separate Branch of Criminal Investigations, any tribe may, by resolution of the governing body of the tribe, request the Secretary to reestablish line authority through the Agency Superintendent or Bureau of Indian Affairs Area Office Director. In the absence of good cause to the contrary, the Secretary, upon receipt of such resolution, shall reestablish the line authority as requested by the tribe.
(e) Standards of education and experience and classification of positions
(1) Standards of education and experience
(A) In general
The Secretary shall establish appropriate standards of education, experience, training, and other relevant qualifications for law enforcement personnel of the Office of Justice Services who are charged with law enforcement responsibilities pursuant to section 2803 of this title.
(B) Requirements for training
The training standards established under subparagraph (A)—
(i) shall be consistent with standards accepted by the Federal Law Enforcement Training Accreditation commission for law enforcement officers attending similar programs; and
(ii) shall include, or be supplemented by, instruction regarding Federal sources of authority and jurisdiction, Federal crimes, Federal rules of criminal procedure, and constitutional law to bridge the gap between State training and Federal requirements.
(C) Training at State, tribal, and local academies
Law enforcement personnel of the Office of Justice Services or an Indian tribe may satisfy the training standards established under subparagraph (A) through training at a State or tribal police academy, a State, regional, local, or tribal college or university, or other training academy (including any program at a State, regional, local, or tribal college or university) that meets the appropriate Peace Officer Standards of Training.
(D) Maximum age requirement
Pursuant to section 3307(e) of title 5, the Secretary may employ as a law enforcement officer under section 2803 of this title any individual under the age of 47, if the individual meets all other applicable hiring requirements for the applicable law enforcement position.
(2) The Secretary shall also provide for the classification of such positions within the Office of Justice Services at GS grades, as provided in section 5104 of title 5, consistent with the responsibilities and duties assigned to such positions and with the qualifications established for such positions.
(3) In classifying positions in the Office of Justice Services under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall ensure that such positions are classified at GS grades comparable to those for other Federal law enforcement personnel in other Federal agencies in light of the responsibilities, duties, and qualifications required of such positions.
(4) Background checks for tribal justice officials
(A) In general
The Office of Justice Services shall develop standards and deadlines for the provision of background checks to tribal law enforcement and corrections officials.
If a request for a background check is made by an Indian tribe that has contracted or entered into a compact for law enforcement or corrections services with the Bureau of Indian Affairs pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), the Office of Justice Services shall complete the check not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of the request, unless an adequate reason for failure to respond by that date is provided to the Indian tribe in writing.
(f) Long-term plan for tribal detention programs
Not later than 1 year after July 29, 2010, the Secretary, acting through the Bureau, in coordination with the Department of Justice and in consultation with tribal leaders, tribal courts, tribal law enforcement officers, and tribal corrections officials, shall submit to Congress a long-term plan to address incarceration in Indian country, including—
(1) a description of proposed activities for—
(A) the construction, operation, and maintenance of juvenile (in accordance with section 2453(a)(3) of this title and adult detention facilities (including regional facilities) in Indian country;
(B) contracting with State and local detention centers, upon approval of affected tribal governments; and
(C) alternatives to incarceration, developed in cooperation with tribal court systems;
(2) an assessment and consideration of the construction of Federal detention facilities in Indian country; and
(3) any other alternatives as the Secretary, in coordination with the Attorney General and in consultation with Indian tribes, determines to be necessary.
References in Text
Public Law 93–638 and the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsecs. (d)(4)(i) and (e)(4)(B), are Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.
2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(1), inserted heading and substituted "There is established in the Bureau an office, to be known as the 'Office of Justice Services', that" for "There is hereby established within the Bureau a Division of Law Enforcement Services which" in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(2)(A), substituted "Office of Justice Services" for "Division of Law Enforcement Services" in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–211, §262, inserted before semicolon ", including training to properly interview victims of domestic and sexual violence and to collect, preserve, and present evidence to Federal and tribal prosecutors to increase the conviction rate for domestic and sexual violence offenses for purposes of addressing and preventing domestic and sexual violent offenses".
Subsec. (c)(10) to (18). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(2)(B)–(D), added pars. (10) to (18).
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(3)(A), substituted "Office of Justice Services" for "Division of Law Enforcement Services".
Subsec. (d)(4)(i). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(3)(B), substituted "Office of Justice Services" for "Division".
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–211, §231(a)(1)(A), inserted heading.
Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(4), substituted "Office of Justice Services" for "Division of Law Enforcement Services" in pars. (1) to (3).
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 111–211, §231(a)(1), inserted heading, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. (A) heading, and added subpars. (B) to (D).
Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 111–211, §231(a)(2), substituted "agencies" for "Agencies".
Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 111–211, §231(a)(3), added par. (4).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–211, §211(b)(5), added subsec. (f).
Designation of Coordinator of Federal Efforts To Combat Violence Against Native People
Pub. L. 116–166, §§2, 3, Oct. 10, 2020, 134 Stat. 766, provided that:
"SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
"In this Act [enacting this note, provisions set out as a note under section 2801 of this title, and provisions not classified to the Code]—
"(1) the term 'Commission' means the Department of the Interior and the Department of Justice Joint Commission on Reducing Violent Crime Against Indians under section 4 [134 Stat. 767];
"(2) the term 'human trafficking' means act or practice described in paragraph (9) or paragraph (10) [probably should be "paragraph (11) or paragraph (12)"] of section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7102);
"(3) the term 'Indian' means a member of an Indian tribe;
"(4) the terms 'Indian lands' and 'Indian tribe' have the meanings given the terms in section 3 of the Native American Business Development, Trade Promotion, and Tourism Act of 2000 (25 U.S.C. 4302); and
"SEC. 3. COORDINATOR OF FEDERAL EFFORTS TO COMBAT VIOLENCE AGAINST NATIVE PEOPLE.
"(1) coordinate prevention efforts, grants, and programs related to the murder of, trafficking of, and missing Indians across Federal agencies, including—
"(A) the Bureau of Indian Affairs; and
"(B) the Department of Justice, including—
"(i) the Office of Justice Programs;
"(ii) the Office on Violence Against Women;
"(iii) the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services;
"(iv) the Federal Bureau of Investigation; and
"(v) the Office of Tribal Justice;
"(2) ensure prevention efforts, grants, and programs of Federal agencies related to the murder of, trafficking of, and missing Indians consider the unique challenges of combating crime, violence, and human trafficking of Indians and on Indian lands faced by Tribal communities, urban centers, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Tribal law enforcement, Federal law enforcement, and State and local law enforcement;
"(3) work in cooperation with outside organizations with expertise in working with Indian tribes and Indian Tribes to provide victim centered and culturally relevant training to tribal law enforcement, Indian Health Service health care providers, urban Indian organizations, Tribal community members and businesses, on how to effectively identify, respond to and report instances of missing persons, murder, and trafficking within Indian lands and of Indians; and
"(4) report directly to the Secretary of the Interior.
"(1) a summary of all coordination activities undertaken in compliance with this section;
"(2) a summary of all trainings completed under subsection (a)(3); and
"(3) recommendations for improving coordination across Federal agencies and of relevant Federal programs."1 So in original. Probably should be "subchapter B of chapter I of title 25,". 2 See References in Text note below. 3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.