(a) Evaluation of the impacts of TANF
The Secretary shall conduct research on the effect of State programs funded under this part and any other State program funded with qualified State expenditures (as defined in section 609(a)(7)(B)(i) of this title) on employment, self-sufficiency, child well-being, unmarried births, marriage, poverty, economic mobility, and other factors as determined by the Secretary.
(b) Evaluation of grants to improve child well-being by promoting healthy marriage and responsible fatherhood
The Secretary shall conduct research to determine the effects of the grants made under section 603(a)(2) of this title on child well-being, marriage, family stability, economic mobility, poverty, and other factors as determined by the Secretary.
(c) Dissemination of information
The Secretary shall, in consultation with States receiving funds provided under this part, develop methods of disseminating information on any research, evaluation, or study conducted under this section, including facilitating the sharing of information and best practices among States and localities.
(d) State-initiated evaluations
A State shall be eligible to receive funding to evaluate the State program funded under this part or any other State program funded with qualified State expenditures (as defined in section 609(a)(7)(B)(i) of this title) if—
(1) the State submits to the Secretary a description of the proposed evaluation;
(2) the Secretary determines that the design and approach of the proposed evaluation is rigorous and is likely to yield information that is credible and will be useful to other States; and
(3) unless waived by the Secretary, the State contributes to the cost of the evaluation, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to at least 25 percent of the cost of the proposed evaluation.
(e) Census Bureau research
(1) The Bureau of the Census shall implement or enhance household surveys of program participation, in consultation with the Secretary and the Bureau of Labor Statistics and made available to interested parties, to allow for the assessment of the outcomes of continued welfare reform on the economic and child well-being of low-income families with children, including those who received assistance or services from a State program funded under this part or any other State program funded with qualified State expenditures (as defined in section 609(a)(7)(B)(i) of this title). The content of the surveys should include such information as may be necessary to examine the issues of unmarried childbearing, marriage, welfare dependency and compliance with work requirements, the beginning and ending of spells of assistance, work, earnings and employment stability, and the well-being of children.
(2) To carry out the activities specified in paragraph (1), the Bureau of the Census, the Secretary, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics shall consider ways to improve the surveys and data derived from the surveys to—
(A) address under reporting of the receipt of means-tested benefits and tax benefits for low-income individuals and families;
(B) increase understanding of poverty spells and long-term poverty, including by facilitating the matching of information to better understand intergenerational poverty;
(C) generate a better geographical understanding of poverty such as through State-based estimates and measures of neighborhood poverty;
(D) increase understanding of the effects of means-tested benefits and tax benefits on the earnings and incomes of low-income families; and
(E) improve how poverty and economic well-being are measured, including through the use of consumption measures, material deprivation measures, social exclusion measures, and economic and social mobility measures.
(f) Research and evaluation conducted under this section
Research and evaluation conducted under this section designed to determine the effects of a program or policy (other than research conducted under subsection (e)) shall use experimental designs using random assignment or other reliable, evidence-based research methodologies that allow for the strongest possible causal inferences when random assignment is not feasible.
(g) Development of What Works Clearinghouse of Proven and Promising Approaches to Move Welfare Recipients into Work
(1) In general
The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor, shall develop a database (which shall be referred to as the "What Works Clearinghouse of Proven and Promising Projects to Move Welfare Recipients into Work") of the projects that used a proven approach or a promising approach in moving welfare recipients into work, based on independent, rigorous evaluations of the projects. The database shall include a separate listing of projects that used a developmental approach in delivering services and a further separate listing of the projects with no or negative effects. The Secretary shall add to the What Works Clearinghouse of Proven and Promising Projects to Move Welfare Recipients into Work data about the projects that, based on an independent, well-conducted experimental evaluation of a program or project, using random assignment or other research methodologies that allow for the strongest possible causal inferences, have shown they are proven, promising, developmental, or ineffective approaches.
(2) Criteria for evidence of effectiveness of approach
The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and organizations with experience in evaluating research on the effectiveness of various approaches in delivering services to move welfare recipients into work, shall—
(A) establish criteria for evidence of effectiveness; and
(B) ensure that the process for establishing the criteria—
(i) is transparent;
(ii) is consistent across agencies;
(iii) provides opportunity for public comment; and
(iv) takes into account efforts of Federal agencies to identify and publicize effective interventions, including efforts at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Education, and the Department of Justice.
(1) In general
Of the amount appropriated by section 603(a)(1) of this title for each fiscal year, 0.33 percent shall be available for research, technical assistance, and evaluation under this section.
Of the amount made available under paragraph (1) for each fiscal year, the Secretary shall make available $10,000,000 plus such additional amount as the Secretary deems necessary and appropriate, to carry out subsection (e).
The baseline established pursuant to section 907 of title 2 for the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program shall be recorded by the Office of Management and Budget and the Congressional Budget Office at the level prior to any transfers recorded pursuant to section 613(h) of this title.
Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.
A prior section 613, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §413, as added June 9, 1980, Pub. L. 96–265, title IV, §406(c), 94 Stat. 467, related to technical assistance for developing management information systems, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, §103(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5514(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620.
2017—Pub. L. 115–31 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to research, evaluations, and national studies.
2014—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 113–235 substituted "Funds made available to carry out this section for a fiscal year shall be used" for "Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2012" in introductory provisions.
2012—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 112–96 substituted "fiscal year 2012" for "each of fiscal years 1997 through 2002" in introductory provisions.
2008—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V), substituted "supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits" for "food stamp".
1999—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–169 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to August 22, 1996.
1998—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 105–200 substituted "Education and the Workforce" for "Economic and Educational Opportunities".
1997—Pub. L. 105–33, §5514(c), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 104–193, §103(a)(1), which enacted this section.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, §5509(b), amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:
"(I) the total number of out-of-wedlock births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the most recent fiscal year for which information is available; over
"(II) the total number of births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for such year.
Subsec. (h)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–33, §5509(c), substituted "August 22, 1996" for "September 30, 1995".
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, §5509(d)(1), substituted "May 31, 1998" for "90 days after August 22, 1996".
Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 105–33, §5509(d)(2), substituted ", to the extent available, county-by-county" for "the county-by-county".
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–33, §5001(f), added subsec. (j).
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment
Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.
Effective Date of 1999 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 106–169 effective as if included in the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see section 401(q) of Pub. L. 106–169, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment
Amendment by section 5509 of Pub. L. 105–33 effective as if included in section 103(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, at the time such section 103(a) became law, see section 5518(a) of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.
Amendment by section 5514(c) of Pub. L. 105–33 effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 104–193 amended at the time the provision became law, see section 5518(d) of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 862a of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
Section effective Aug. 22, 1996, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as a note under section 601 of this title.
Funding of Research, Evaluations, and National Studies
Pub. L. 113–235, div. G, title II, §228(c), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2491, provided that: "In the case of research, evaluations, and national studies funded under section 413(h)(1) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 613(h)(1)], no funds shall be appropriated under that section for fiscal year 2015 or any fiscal year thereafter."
Coordination of Substance Abuse and Child Protection Services
Pub. L. 105–89, title IV, §405, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2135, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, based on information from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, to submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report which described the extent and scope of the problem of substance abuse in the child welfare population, the types of services provided to such population, and the outcomes resulting from the provision of such services to such population, along with appropriate recommendations for legislative changes.
GAO Study of Effect of Family Violence on Need for Public Assistance
Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5001(i), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 593, directed the Comptroller General to conduct a study of the effect of family violence on the use of public assistance programs, and in particular the extent to which family violence prolongs or increases the need for public assistance, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress within 1 year after Aug. 5, 1997.
Study on Alternative Outcomes Measures
Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §107, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2164, as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5511, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 619, directed the Secretary, in cooperation with the States, to study and analyze outcomes measures for evaluating the success of the States in moving individuals out of the welfare system through employment as an alternative to the minimum participation rates described in 42 U.S.C. 607, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Sept. 30, 1998.1 So in original. The word "Projects" is used in text.